Interludio: El Premio Nobel de Física 2013 y la lista de los Nobel en la historia “Del átomo al Higgs”

Blog1310_EnglertAndHiggsAtCERN4July2012

François Englert y Peter Higgs, en la conferencia en la que se anunció el descubrimiento del bosón de Higgs, CERN, 4 Julio 2012. Fuente: CERN

Esta mañana la Academia de Ciencias Sueca ha anunciado la concesión del Premio Nobel de Física 2013 a François Englert y Peter W. Higgs “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”.

La lista completa de los Premios Nobel de Física, junto con la breve motivación que sustenta la concesión, se puede consultar aquí. De esa lista, desde su inicio en 1901, he entresacado, como complemento documental a la historia “Del Átomo al Higgs” aquellos que se han concedido a investigaciones que caen dentro del tema general de esta historia:   el nacimiento y desarrollo de la Mecánica Cuántica y luego de la Física Atómica, Nuclear o de Partículas Elementales, en sus vertientes teórica y experimental. A su manera esquemática y parcial, la lista da también una cierta “radiografía” de la historia.

En general, y discusiones tribales o disensiones puntuales aparte, hay acuerdo entre los físicos en que todos los que están presentes en esta lista merecen el premio. Pero, como en cualquier lista semejante, hay un amplio espectro de opiniones subjetivas sobre las ausencias que cada quien considera bien más significativas o bien menos justificadas. En la mía, las ausencias de Jocelyn Bell en el de Física de 1993 (junto con la de Lise Meitner en el de Química de 1944) son dos de las más destacadas.

Hay un caso extremo, de un personaje bastante o muy desconocido, a quien no me resisto a mencionar en este contexto. Le dedicaré el próximo Interludio, manteniendo entretanto la intriga sobre su identidad. A continuación, la lista entresacada.

Blog1310_NobelPhysicsHead02

Fuente: Página Web oficial de los Premios Nobel de Física.

2013 François Englert and Peter W. Higgs “for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider”

2008 Yoichiro Nambu “for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics” and Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa “for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature

2004 David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek “for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction”

1999 Gerardus ‘t Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman “for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics”

1995 “for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics” Martin L. Perl “for the discovery of the tau lepton” and Frederick Reines “for the detection of the neutrino”

1992 Georges Charpak “for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber”

1990 Jerome I. Friedman, Henry W. Kendall and Richard E. Taylor “for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics”

1988 Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger “for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino”

1984 Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer “for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction”

1982 Kenneth G. Wilson “for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions”

1980 James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch “for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons”

1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam and Steven Weinberg “for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current”

1976 Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting “for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind”

1969 Murray Gell-Mann “for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions”

1968 Luis Walter Alvarez “for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis”

1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard P. Feynman “for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles”

1961 Robert Hofstadter “for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons” and Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer “for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name”

1960 Donald Arthur Glaser “for the invention of the bubble chamber”

1959 Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain “for their discovery of the antiproton”

1957 Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao (T.D.) Lee “for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles”

1955 Willis Eugene Lamb “for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum” and Polykarp Kusch “for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron”

1951 Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton “for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles”

1950 Cecil Frank Powell “for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method”

1949 Hideki Yukawa “for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces”

1948 Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett “for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation”

1939 Ernest Orlando Lawrence “for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements”

1938 Enrico Fermi “for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons”

1936 Victor Franz Hess “for his discovery of cosmic radiation” and Carl David Anderson “for his discovery of the positron”

1935 James Chadwick “for the discovery of the neutron”

1933 Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac “for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory”

1932 Werner Karl Heisenberg “for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen”

1929 Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie “for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons”

1927 Arthur Holly Compton “for his discovery of the effect named after him” and Charles Thomson Rees Wilson “for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour”

1925 James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz “for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom”

1923 Robert Andrews Millikan “for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect”

1922 Niels Henrik David Bohr “for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them”

1921 Albert Einstein “for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect”

1918 Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck “in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta”

1906 Joseph John Thomson “in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases”

1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity” and Pierre Curie and Marie Curie, née Sklodowska “in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel”

1902 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman “in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena”

1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him”

Este post, “El Premio Nobel de Física 2013 y la lista de los Nobel en la historia “Del átomo al Higgs”” forma parte de una serie. Este enlace lleva al post sucesivo. Si quiere saltar directamente a otro post de la serie, puede usar los enlaces directos a cada entrada.

O Átomos y vacío: donde Demócrito conoce a Higgs
I Los átomos de la materia ordinaria
II Cuantificación y la estabilidad del Átomo
III Espín, Bosones y Fermiones
IV La electrodinámica cuántica y los primeros ejemplos de la teoría cuántica de campos
V El nacimiento de la idea de las cuatro interacciones fundamentales
VI El Zoo de partículas y los primeros intentos de describir las interacciones fuerte y débil
Interludio: Los Nobel en la historia del átomo al Higgs
VII Dificultades iniciales de las teorías gauge entre 1954 y 1961
VIII Los quarks, desde su propuesta hasta su “descubrimiento” (1961 a 1974)
IX El campo de Higgs y el mecanismo de Brout-Englert-Higgs
X La libertad asintótica y la Cromodinámica Cuántica
Interludio: ¿Pero qué hay realmente en un protón?
Interludio. Calculando la masa del protón
XI El actual modelo estandar a vista de pájaro
XII 1898-1995, un siglo descubriendo partículas …
XIII Búsqueda y hallazgo del bosón de Higgs
Del átomo al Higgs: Para saber más
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